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State of South Australia

South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.


It is bordered to the west by Western Australia, to the north by the Northern Territory to the north-east by Queensland, to the east by New South Wales and Victoria, and along the south by the Great Australian Bight and the Southern Ocean. With nearly 1.6 million people, the state comprises less than 10% of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the states and territories. The majority of its people reside in the state capital, Adelaide, with most of the remainder settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The state's origins were unique in Australia as a freely-settled, planned British province rather than a convict settlement. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the state was proclaimed at The Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh.


The first city/town to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, established in 1836. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was later employed by the New Zealand Company. The aim was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, the state is known as a state of festivals and of fine wine. The state's economy centres on the agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries and has an increasingly significant finance sector as well.


A majority of the states population live within Adelaide's metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 1,158,259 in 2007 (70.3% of the state). Other significant population centres include Mount Gambier (approx. 23,494), Whyalla (21,122), Murray Bridge (18,364), Port Augusta (13,257), Port Pirie (13,206), Port Lincoln (13,044), and Victor Harbor (10,380).

  • Adelaide Hills
  • Barossa Valley
  • Clare Valley
  • Eyre Peninsula
  • Fleurieu Peninsula
  • Flinders Ranges
  • Kangaroo Island
  • Limestone Coast
  • Nullarbor Plain
  • Riverland
  • Yorke Peninsula
  • Cooper Creek
  • Marne River
  • Murray River
  • Onkaparinga River
  • Port River
  • River Torrens
  • Lake Albert
  • Lake Alexandrina
  • Lake Eyre
  • Lake Frome
  • Lake Gairdner
  • Lake Torrens
  • Blue Lake
  • Flinders Island
  • Granite Island
  • Hindmarsh Island
  • Kangaroo Island
  • Neptune Island
  • Nuyts Archipelago
  • Pearson Isles
  • Torrens Island
  • Troubridge Island
Main highways:
  • Barrier Highway
  • Barossa Valley Highway
  • Dukes Highway
  • Eyre Highway
  • Flinders Highway
  • Lincoln Highway
  • Main North Road
  • Mallee Highway
  • Northern Expressway
  • Princes Highway
  • Riddoch Highway
  • Stuart Highway
  • Sturt Highway
  • South Eastern Freeway
  • Southern Expressway



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